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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

China's 16 listed banks have cut their dividend payouts for the past year amid slowing net profit growth.

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9.忠诚待人
该数据显示10月份下半月北京、天津、上海、深圳、厦门和郑州新建住宅价格出现了环比下滑。
EMBAGlobal is the only programme in the top 10 that saw a slight drop in the average salary of its alumni compared with last year (the other nine recorded strong increases).

adj. 可能的,潜在的
In a humiliating 111-77 loss to the Golden State Warriors at Oracle Arena, Bryant shot 1-of-14 from the field, including 1-of-7 from 3-point range, and scored four points. He also shot 1-of-14 in a loss last season to the San Antonio Spurs.
com共同+plex重叠→全部重叠→复杂的

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

新中源陶瓷承诺买瓷砖返现店老板中途失联

Julia Hartz
The latest commerce ministry figures do not include real estate purchases by individuals, many of whom exploit loopholes in China's capital control regime to obtain foreign currency. But the foreign exchange regulator has recently moved to close such loopholes, notably by tightening control of forex purchases by individuals, who are allowed to exchange $50,000 worth of renminbi for foreign currency each year.
平均工作经验:12年

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

联邦、州和地方政府的裁员速度开始放缓。去年各级政府部门有逾25万人失去工作。今年截至目前,约有两万人找到了工作。经济学家说,美国的债务和赤字问题引发的担忧可能将限制政府支出和投资,但基础设施支出的任何反弹都会创造就业岗位。至少政府带来的拖累会减小。[qh]
Friends wasn't known for being the most diverse show on television at the time, since the cast was comprised of almost entirely white actors. None of the main characters were anything other than "mainstream." Even the acknowledgement of Ross's first wife Carol being a lesbian was met with jokes about sexuality (mostly from Joey), and sexist comments were frequently incorporated into the script.
calend一天+ar表名词,“人,物”→日历

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 根据研究机构Millward Brown编制的BrandZ最新排行榜,全球100个最具价值品牌的品牌价值仍远远领先于其他品牌,今年它们的总价值上升3%,至3.4万亿美元。
  • 业务下滑 二手经纪人转战售楼处
  • I hope you have a most happy and prosperous New Year.
  • 广州去年一手住宅成交减少三成
  • 天津家居市场观察:房子热卖 家居卖场难“搭车”
  • In August, the holdings were to the tune of $80.4 billion while it stood at $79.7 billion in July.
    Foreign investment in emerging markets has dropped to the lowest level since the financial crisis as investors are braced for the fallout of the first US interest rate rise in nearly a decade.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 一线城市供需关系合理 未来房价还要继续涨?, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

华润涂料退出冠军联盟

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

房企急了!11月推盘规模创历史新高

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 国家卫生健康委员会补充称,其中81.8%的新病例是同性恋行为造成的,这是由于学生“尽管对疾病有很高的认识,但对保护的意识不强”。
    当然,我们已经收到很多邮件,称赞各种粉水晶色和宁静蓝天色的产品。不过,我想知道:在下一轮总统竞选辩论中,我们会突然看到各种混合的、色调柔和的领带吗(而不是当下流行的红蓝领带)?现在就下注吧。
  • out出去.过时+rage怒气→怒气外露→粗暴,暴行
    而在一年前,台湾的反华人士就选择了向日葵作为他们反华事业的标志。
    "I'm excited about the opportunity to return to China, enjoy the country's culture, and bring the excitement of live NBA games directly to Chinese fans," he added.
    美国财政部门最新数据表明印度九月份持有的美国政府债券达到800亿美元,十月份减持美国政府债券到775亿美元——这也是三个月来的最低点。
    Since merged airlines often continue to report delay statistics separately, it may take a few years to see how the new American does during holiday travel.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 凛冬将至 木门企业如何才能“保暖”前行?
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 不动产登记对楼市冲击几何:市场影响将十分有限

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

他说:“比如说,如果他们拖延从韩国进口的海关流程并采取对韩国商品的其他报复举措,韩国政府对此将无能为力。”
delicate
Framing the ’80s
Ten years ago, Steele was a successful investment advisor speaking at ITU World, a United Nations conference on technology for government. That same week, California experienced its first-ever gubernatorial election recall. Steele couldn't believe these kinds of hiccups were happening during such important races (the infamous Florida presidential election recall was only three years prior), so she decided to solve the problem herself. To date,169 countries, including Bosnia-Herzegovina, used Everyone Counts' electronic voting platform, as did the Academy Awards committee.
Despite the breakthrough, Jack Ma, chairman of Alibaba Group, said there was no need for human beings to fear machines.
在排名靠前的学校中,英国华威商学院(Warwick Business School)排名提升最大,从第16位提升至第9名。整体而言,上海交通大学(Shanghai JiaoTong University)的上海高级金融学院(Shanghai Advanced Institute of Finance)排名提升最大,从第28位提升至第14位。
在周五晚上,金州勇士队以106比94击败了芝加哥公牛队,将战绩提升为14胜0负。库里本场比赛拿下27分,而卫冕冠军也距离NBA历史最佳开局纪录只有一场之遥。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 一位来自美国佛罗里达州的少女引起了世人的惊叹,因为她长得酷肖迪士尼动画电影《冰雪奇缘》中的艾丽莎女王。
  • 东方家园败走济南 楼市调控影响家居建材业
  • "The editors thought the articles were being sent out to genuine reviewers in the discipline," he said. "Following our investigation and communication with the real reviewers, they confirmed they did not conduct the peer review."
    James Gorman, a Times reporter, accompanied scientists who are trying to understand the genes that distinguish dogs from wolves. Humans who raise wolf puppies must spend 24 hours a day, seven days a week with them in order to socialize these puppies for scientific study. And while the pups may seem cute, they will grow to be predatory wolves, not humanity’s faithful companions. The researchers hope their work will help reveal the trigger that made some ancient wolves into the dogs we know today.
  • 惠企政策可解一时之困 长远发展路线才王道
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • Set between the events of Star Wars Episode III and IV, Rogue One will most likely be about bounty hunters who set out to steal the Death Star plans. We're not exactly sure of the plot.
    提到MeToo行动,麦高恩说:“他们都是混蛋,不是冠军,一群失败者,我不喜欢他们。”
  • 另一种看法是,油价在过去三年中的变动,是长期结构性变化的开始,预示着下一个50年里,能源价格按实际值计算将显著低于上一个50年。简单地说,持这种看法的人认为,供给的增长潜力超过需求增长。
    For: Well-received by both audiences and critics, it tells a crucial slice of history.
  • Days after her death, Ross’ mother, Alicia Jesquith, told reporters she needed answers for the sudden death of her daughter, described by friends and family as a vibrant, ambitious young girl who lit up the room.
    2.喷气背包
  • [dr?ft]
    一名姓苏的学生表示:“此外,大多数中国家庭只有一个孩子,所以为了和家人朋友离得近一些,大多数留学生都会选择回国。”他放弃了自己在英国的工作,回国照顾自己的母亲。
    2Canada
  • [p?n'demik]
    201001/93725.shtmlNews trumpedcelebrities in 2010 as the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico and World Cup soccer in South Africa topped the list of most-searched items of 2010, according to Yahoo!
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 2017年LED显示屏企业转型必经的“八大关” shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

《贸易便利化协定》为卫浴企业进出口带来春天

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

国家发展改革委外资司召开中法第三方市场合作项目推进会

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

2016前三季度建材行业运行情况分析

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

8月楼市小幅反弹 54城住宅成交量环比上涨9.2%

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • We have confidence that we will continue to open this country at a higher level, and maintain this country as a popular destination for investment. We welcome other partners to work with us to share in the development opportunities of China.
  • 'The pizza is extremely rich - if you're in the mood for a lavish meal, this is the pizza for you,' he said.
  • 家居质量丑闻频发 倒逼材料商联盟以整合供应链

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • Unlike MBAs, masters in management are targeted at those at the beginning of their career.
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 国家统计局日前在其网站发布了上述数据,称这是科技研发经费增速连续4年下滑后的首次回升。
    In July, a video of a couple having sex in the fitting room of a Uniqlo clothing store in Beijing took the Internet in China by storm. Some commenters speculated that it was a publicity stunt by the retailer, which denied the claim. Several people were detained on suspicion of uploading and distributing the video.
    Joakim Noah, meanwhile, proved to be so untradeable that he couldn't even generate a rumor.
  • 很多人相信,对于中国资源环境来讲,人口已不再是主要威胁。相反,中国的人口危机已转变成出生率过低,社会老龄化加剧以及性别比例失衡。在中国的珠江三角洲等地已经出现了技工短缺的现象,所以不久以后,我们可能将看到计生政策上的重大变革。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 5.高效决策者
  • 顾客抄底商家冲刺 黄金周家居销量大增
  • The appointment of Inga Beale to run Lloyds of London and of Mary Barra to run General Motors marked an encouraging end to 2013. Progress for women in the coming year will continue to be too little and too slow, but you should expect to see women in positions of power and influence everywhere. Even Japan is starting to try to get women into work.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 家电行业“涨”声不断 发改委召开告诫会
  • Household substance abuse
  • 智能家居企业群雄逐鹿 市场这块蛋糕应该怎么吃?
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

我国成最大建材生产消费国 政企联动促产业绿色转型

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 成都17家房源网站被要求48小时内自查整改
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 整合大幕开启 厨卫电器行业洗牌渐行渐近
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

切实落实脱贫攻坚责任制,实施最严格的评估考核,严肃查处假脱贫、“被脱贫”、数字脱贫,确保脱贫得到群众认可、经得起历史检验。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

《出生于缅甸皇室的她成为军阀和大毒枭》(The Female Warlord Who Had C.I.A. Connections and Opium Routes)
一份调查报告称,2014届中国大学毕业生的就业满意度为61%。
钱很重要
单词productive 联想记忆:
ownership
与亨特相反,在《钢琴课》中与亨特联合主演的安娜·帕奎因(Anna Paquin),她的小金人似乎居无定所,游荡在她装袜子的抽屉和放靴子的地板之间。
性感的小动作,比如摆弄头发、轻弹小指、摩擦双腿、踱步、摇晃、轻咬嘴唇。(好吧,上面很多其实都是在回答“如何变成康伯巴奇”。)
肯尼迪中心为她的善举给她颁发了希望的波澜奖(the Ripple of Hope Award),泰勒也成为此奖项的最年轻获得者。
That put outbound investment for October at $8.3bn, according to FT calculations based on official data, for a year-on-year fall of 26.5 per cent.
This makes China the leader among middle-income economies for this indicator, followed by India which has overtaken Brazil, according to the report jointly released by Cornell University, INSEAD and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

北京推蓝领公寓:1400元/人/月 面向快递员服务员

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 4.You Don't Like Most of Your Coworkers
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • According to the report, people living in first-tier cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen suffer much higher economic pressure, while fourth-tier and smaller cities offer fewer job opportunities and connection plays an important role in every aspect of life there.
  • 广东楼市上半年总体量降价稳 下半年调控仍将保持从严
  • 债券大王比尔?格罗斯(Bill Gross)承认:“QE必须结束。”数万亿的低成本资金“扭曲了激励机制,将资产价格推高至人为水平”。但现在格罗斯说“美联储的计划可能过于仓促了”。
  • 一线楼市连续8个月供大于求 去库存力度仍会加大
  • 此外,她还指出同工同酬的问题。她表示这不仅仅是女性的问题,这实际影响到每一个人。希拉里表示:"如果你有妻子,母亲,姐妹,女儿,她们在工作中没有被公平对待,那么整个家庭都会为此受影响。"

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • O2O将至,建材经销商如何转型做电商?
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • Actively expanding China's opening up to the world
  • adj. 保守的,守旧的

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

地板企业深掘消费者“兴奋点”:“自媒体营销”或成主打营销方式

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