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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

你有D型人格特征吗?有测试表明,拥有这种鲜为人知的性格的人非常善于隐藏情感,甚至他们自己都没有意识到自己很孤单、很焦虑。

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As a result, in the first 10 months of 2016, the year-on-year decline in EM exports in dollar terms was just 6.6 per cent, according to calculations by Capital Economics, a marked improvement on the 11.6 per cent contraction seen in 2015, as the third chart illustrates.
中国政策制定者的任何开始减持国内巨额储备的决定,都将对市场产生巨大影响。
David Pilling

智能水瓶
2018年它们会拿出更多创造力,包括在非现金效益上的创造力。例如,美国银行(Bank of America)刚刚引入了一项新计划,让全球银行业务和市场部门的员工休至多6周的长假。该计划是有条件的:员工必须在该行工作至少10年,每5年可以申请一次长假,最多享受3次。但根据英国《金融时报》看到的一份内部备忘录,首席运营官汤姆蒙塔格(Tom Montag)鼓励符合条件的员工考虑该计划。
Global smartphone shipments reached 1.47 billion units in 2016, up by 2.3 percent from last year, said IDC.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

上海涂料行业或将纳入“无组织排放源”惩罚名单

明年,市长的保障性住房计划将初具规模,该计划要求在未来十年里,修建或保留20万套保障性住房。这一目标的实现取决于一项政策,它要求开发商通过修建保障性住房,来换取在市政府重新规划的社区修建更高、更密集楼盘的资格。至于政府将会如何在这项提案的雏形上添砖加瓦,开发商和保障房倡导者们都在拭目以待。
比蒂和唐纳薇上台宣布最佳影片奖时,卡利南和瑞兹意识到他们手里还有两只最佳影片信封,也就是说,拿上台的信封是已经宣布过的奖项。
中国厂商:中国汽车进军美国?巴菲特持股的比亚迪汽车公司称,它将于2015年登陆美国市场,吉利汽车也将于2016年进入美国市场。不过自2006年起,我们就一直在听说中国车企要登陆美国。中国汽车最大的硬伤是做工问题。中国有80多家汽车厂商,生产的车型多达524款,研发资金铺得太开,太单薄,以至于很难获得有意义的业绩。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

1)Thank You: Common courtesy? Sure. But tell me this: When was the last time you forgot (or rejected) gratitude? Whether given in private or public, a sincere ‘thanks’ creates goodwill. Don’t forget your mother’s advice: “Say please.” People are always happier doing a favor than taking an order.
After years of filming its iconic fashion show in New York City, Victoria's Secret has travelled to London, Paris, Cannes and Los Angeles, and for 2017 the global lingerie giant is heading to Shanghai.
加拿大整体排名第二,幅员辽阔,位居世界第二。“生活质量”与“教育最佳国家”均居首位。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • It adds up to a pointed reminder that Her Royal Swiftness can reclaim her place at pop's cutting edge whenever she feels like it.
  • 22批次抽查结果不达标 卫浴等家居建材质量问题“伤痕累累”
  • Businesses are already responding: Job openings in November hit the second highest level in 14 years. In another telltale sign, people are quitting jobs at the fastest rate in five years. Research shows that people who quit one job for another typically do so because they are offered higher pay.
  • 国内第四家宜家购物中心签约进驻湘江新区
  • 破除民间投资障碍 中央有何新举措?
  • 谢谢!
    However, before starting their EMBAs, there is already a wide gap in salaries, with women earning on average 15 per cent less than men, at $111,000 and $128,000 respectively.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 媒体调查辟谣“京津冀及周边工地将停工半年”:实为房产促销, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

2016全国楼市成交小幅增长 房价增幅约7%

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

成品房时代来临 建材家装企业如何应对?

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • The housing slump has cut demand for iron ore, energy and other commodities. Higher global supplies have exacerbated the gap between supply and demand and pushed raw materials prices lower. This dynamic is not expected to change in the near term despite measures such as the interest rate cut in November.
    The second event of note is Comac’s latest round of financing—it raised 15 billion yuan ($2.3 billion) last month in the form of a 10-year debt investment plan—combined with the memorandum of understanding (MOU) signed in June by Airbus and the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC). The financing and MOU are intended to help bring about a fully developed, competitive domestic supply chain, the former through the injection of research and development money down the supply chain and the latter through the integration of Chinese suppliers in Airbus’s global supply network. The objective, as outlined in the “Made in China 2025” plan, is for Chinese suppliers to provide 80% of all parts by 2025.
  • 今年最引人注目的化妆和发型设计几乎都源自角色的原型本身(其中有些无疑比银幕上的造型更有活力)。除了能让观众一眼看出角色的外貌特征,它们也能为演员的表演赋予整体感觉和微妙之感。有时,一个大鼻子就能加深观众的理解。
    在主要贸易伙伴中,以美元计的出口确实出现增长的包括对美国的出口,同比增长5.5%,达到370.6亿美元。而对韩国的出口也显示增长8.3%至102亿美元。
    斯坦福大学商学院校友的平均薪资最高,为19.5万美元,但总体而言,排在前15名之内的MBA课程在收入、职业发展和满意度方面都非常接近。除了一所学校外,这些商学院的校友平均薪资均超过15万美元,与就读MBA以前的收入相比,薪资上涨了大约100%。
    皮肤辛苦的担任着包裹我们和保护我们整个身体的责任,因此它也成为了最容易被伤害的器官。当皮肤被烧伤或者被割破,你最快的选择是从身体其他部位移植一部分过来。然而,感谢斯坦福大学科学家的研究,一种能有效替代人体皮肤的材料,不久后将面世。
    GoldSeek.com的这个标题发出了红色警报。在评估另外20名专家跟踪的20种周期之后,它总结道:“很多周期表明股市的调整或崩溃已经临近……未雨绸缪是很重要的。在‘窗口’关闭之前,你仍有一些时间!”

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 北京朝阳区不动产登记半天全搞定
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 江西南昌部分限价楼盘“高价装修”调查

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

节目17 小品《你摊上事儿了》,秦海璐 王茜华 孙涛 方清平
The dollar value of China’s exports fell markedly more than expected last month and import growth more than halved, while revisions to November data erased what had appeared to be a long-hoped-for return to growth for outbound shipments.
不过,10月份社会消费品零售总额增速放缓至10%,低于经济学家的预期。经济学家曾预期,10月份的增速将与9月份一致,同为10.7%。
当伊利诺伊大学的研究员着手建立一种靠嗅觉来鉴别化学物质的装置时,他们并不满足于提高人类鼻子的灵敏度。相反,他们发展出一种假鼻子,依靠对细菌的气味来鉴别和诊断某些疾病。
6. Miranda Kerr
据信,宝能借入了大笔资金来购买万科的股票。现在,它已是万科最大的股东,持股比例为25%。
2. Get a Belstaff coat and blue scarf. The coat cost about 1350 pounds. It's got good twirl for those dramatic moments in life.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • author权力,权威+ixation表名词,来自-ize+ation,“…化”或“发展过程”→授权,批准
  • 卫浴行业打响产业升级战 未来谁才是时代“弄潮儿”?
  • n. 毂,木片,中心
    联系方式:Debbie McNally, Lakes Sotheby’s International Realty, (612) 388-1790; debbiemcnally.com
  • 房价延续涨势 楼市分化格局迎差异化政策
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • SIZE: 5,003 square feet total
    IFAD的政策顾问、这篇报告的作者佩德罗·德·瓦斯孔塞卢斯称:“这确实是一个全球性的现象,由于缺乏机会,人们不得不背井离乡,出门打工养活家人。”
  • 美国各地许多餐馆和商店星期三向美国退伍军人提供免费服务或优惠,以纪念一年一度的退伍军人节。
    elegant
  • 我们第一次看到安娜·莫拉莱斯(Anna Morales,杰西卡·查斯坦[Jessica Chastain]饰)的头发是在《至暴之年》(A Most Violent Year)的片头字幕里。她正对着镜子化妆。
    Employment is crucial to ensuring people’s well-being. We will focus our efforts on facilitating employment to see that through their hard work, people can create wealth and realize their full potential.
  • 马自达获得了最佳轿车品牌的称号。汽车媒体一直很青睐马自达的表现,而如今的马自达汽车都在精致的内部设置和强大的驱动力上赢得了积极的反馈。上图的2016马自达第三代,在美国新闻小巧车排名中摘得桂冠,它的精准操控,强大加速度和高端室内布局,赢得了大多数汽车评论家称赞。
    2.这里没有人能够回答你问的任何关于击剑的问题。还是去google一下吧。
    “The course was delivered by top-notch practitioners,” says one HEC Paris graduate. “The programme is perfectly designed for young professionals having limited finance experience and allows them to be immediately operational upon graduation.”
  • 本周二在竞选的最后阶段,罗姆尼还前往俄亥俄州和宾夕法尼亚州,希望能在这些摇摆州取得选票支持。奥巴马竞选阵营这边,副总统拜登也前往了俄亥俄州,奥巴马本人留守芝加哥。
    'How do I explain the fact that I got a GQ Man of the Year award and no women's magazines and no women's organisations have supported me?
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 中共中央政治局4月19日召开会议 分析研究当前经济形势 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

2018年信用等级A级以上房地产开发企业名单

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

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Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

房地产市场画风突变后 90后毕业买房族何去何从

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

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Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

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  • 10.Be Dedicated and balanced
  • 温国辉到荔湾区调研 以规划引领高质量发展 奋力实现老城市新活力

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • EMPIRE (Fox, Wednesday) The filmmaker Lee Daniels (“Precious,” “Lee Daniels’ The Butler”) is behind this new hip-hop soap opera starring Terrence Howard as a rap mogul with a terminal disease.
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 孙轶潇表示,他曾想撬开电梯门,但是他放弃了这个想法。相反,考虑到电梯出了故障可能会自由下坠,他选择背靠电梯。
    The various mustaches were conceived by the designer Frances Hannon, who has built a number of facial hair styles for Bill Murray in Anderson films (“Rushmore,” “The Life Aquatic With Steve Zissou”). Here, she asked many of the actors to grow out their facial hair so she would have the option to cut it in any shape she wanted.
    The Great American Eclipse
  • "Game of Thrones" was not only the most downloaded show of the TV season, but also the most downloaded show of the year. In fact, the per episode illegal downloads figure is higher than the best ratings "Game of Thrones" has ever had。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

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  • 海福乐五金携手AIM打造异动空间
  • 俄罗斯的SKN公司将老旧俄国弹药制作成钻石。这就是回收利用!

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 网购家居建材满意度仅有8% 卖得越多退得越多
  • Household substance abuse
  • 花钱都买不来的六个瓷砖铺贴经验
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

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  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
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  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 硅酮胶二十年发展概览
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

China's rich seek own islands

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

疯狂的方式
That deceleration could prove a spoiler to broader growth if it continues apace, as observers have attributed sustained activity growth among manufacturers to stronger domestic demand.
里尔宁援引了荷兰经济政策分析局(CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis)的最新数据,数据显示,9月至10月经季节性调整的全球贸易量下降了1.1%,他表示,去年将被证明是世界贸易自2009年以来表现最糟糕的一年。
日前,一名14岁的中国少年,在一个晚上的时间内克服了人类史上的两大恐惧:被困电梯和完成家庭作业。而这多亏了他机智的性格。
Letizia Battaglia chronicled Palermo’s Mafia wars in the 1970s and ’80s for a local newspaper. Now, her images appear in museums and retrospectives.
Last year, Islamic State militants seized 49 Turkish hostages from Turkey's consulate in Mosul and held them for more than three months before releasing the group. Those hostages included diplomats, soldiers and children.
Scarlett Johansson of Captain America: Civil War was third at $25 million, down nearly 30 percent from 2015.
日前,一名14岁的中国少年,在一个晚上的时间内克服了人类史上的两大恐惧:被困电梯和完成家庭作业。而这多亏了他机智的性格。
这一数字也是自2011年以来的最高增长率。五年前,中国的总票房只有100亿元。
The next biggest provincial provinces were Jiangsu, Shandong, Zhejiang, Henan and Sichuan, finishing in the same position as 2015.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

“银十”10大标杆房企卖楼价环比下跌2.3%

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 5. Will China's migrant workers get permanent urban residence in 2010?
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

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  • Many entrepreneurs already have a Gmail address, but not every ‘trep knows about the power of Google Docs. By utilizing Google Docs, you can instantly create shareable documents, spreadsheets and presentations that can be updated by any team member with an Internet connection. Take that “track changes”!
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  • Dachis says: Fiat suffered through a slow global sales year in 2012. Sluggish sales were reflected in sluggish social activity as the company went in reverse on positive discussion around the web.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 建材产品遭质监部门曝光岂是“小事儿”
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 2) I often talk to strangers 0 1 2 3 4
  • As early as 2008, wearable technology—which can range in anything from measuring your heart rate to curating music based on your mood—has been touted as the next big moment in consumer electronics.

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

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