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严查下仍抬价抢房 机构收房隐现盈利逻辑

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 8月一线城市住宅成交疲软 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

沪新房存量破1200万平米 存量较大区楼盘降14.2%

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

summary
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6.Do All the Work, Plus More
“…said he never lets people see him sweat — but he was sweating profusely.”
女子200米蝶泳——刘子歌、焦刘洋
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Paul was a pretty undersized guard back in high school, which is probably why he's developed such a "me against the world" mentality. CP3 is one of the grittiest and toughest players in the NBA, and he has to be because he sure isn't one of the biggest.

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律师本质上是谨慎的,但他们中的大多数人已经认识到,技术是处理他们需要梳理的大量信息的关键。没有技术,披露和合规等一些需要处理很多文件的工作几乎不可能完成。
但大部分海外岛屿则会出售永久产权。
Fone Fun Shop director Mark Strachan says that this machine was developed to help iPhone owners get to their photos or contacts in a locked iPhone with a forgotten passcode. Discovered in Hong Kong, Strachan says that they were at first skeptical that the device would work. But over time, the tool has proven itself over and over again.
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Footnotes

  • 物流地产受追捧
  • 今年,竞争最激烈的职位--中国民主同盟中央委员会接待处--有大约10000人参与竞争。

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单词yacht 联想记忆:
But because I can’t help but hope that with the end of “Mad Men” comes the end of a period in fashion that has seen designers become trapped in the past to an almost stifling degree. At least the past as it looked in the 1960s (which in the beginning, let us not forget, looked a lot like the late 1950s) and early ’70s.
This whole week was a train wreck: the unconvincing denials, the timing of the Cousins trade on All-Star Sunday, the pathetic return value,
8月7日

南京金鹰A座楼顶失火 当地消防已赴现场救援

References

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